Upcoming changes to OS X will soon make setting up Google accounts that use 2-step verification with the Mac much simpler. Added in the developer beta of OS X 10.10.3 released yesterday, setting up a Google account in the Internet Accounts section of the System Preferences app now supports 2-step verification just like the web. Prior versions of OS X including the public version available now currently require using an app specific password to set up a Google account with OS X.
The new process is much simpler as it simply requires submitting a code sent over text message or Google Authenticator rather than having to go through multiple steps to authorize OS X as an app. The change impacts setting up Google services like Gmail with the system and using apps like Calendar, Contacts, Messages, and Notes.
Support for logging in with a Google account on iOS still requires an app specific password. (Update: iOS 8.3 changes this to align with OS X 10.10.3.)
The first beta release of OS X 10.10.3 for developers was released yesterday including the all-new Photos app which replaces iPhoto as well as changes to the Emoji character picker and place holders for future characters. The software update to OS X Yosemite is expected to ship to everyone later this spring.
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